Английский, вариант 1 (Motivation)

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I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните в них слова, оформленные окончанием -s, и определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются эти слова и какую функцию выполняет это окончание, то есть служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-его лица единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.Comparative psychology studies the phylogenetic forms of mental life.
2.Unconscious mental processes influence the individual’s behaviour in different ways.
3.Corrective psychology investigates the psychological problems of reformation of criminals through conviction and compulsion.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните их и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.Melancholics are emotionally weaker than cholerics.
2.The most important social drives are the need for security and the need for approval.
3.Right Hemisphere comprehends only the simplest language.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.Emotions activate and direct human behaviour.
2.Man has learnt to anticipate the consequences of his most complex behaviour.
3.The analysis of psychological phenomena is made from several points of
4.Structuralists were criticizes by functionalists on the grounds that their objectives were too narrow.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли причастие определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола- сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.Comparative psychology studies the nature and causes of the existing similarities and differences in the behaviour of animals and man.
2.Trying to explain this psychological phenomenon, the lecturer used different examples.
3.Psychologists, led by John Dewey, defined psychology as the study of man’s adjustment to his environment.
4.The followers of Wundt are known as structuralists.

V. Переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.Certain psychological terms can be unclear or misunderstood.
2.We are to define psychology as “the study of mind”.
3.You must identify the word "mind" scientifically.
4.Psychology should study the whole pattern of behaviour or experience.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните в них герундий. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык герундия.
1.These scientists started working at the problem of man’s behaviour.
2.Thinking is an attempt to direct attention and clarify perception.
3.In considering the stimuli which initiate human activity, psychologists use the term environment in its broadest sense.
4.The environment provides certain opportunities for satisfying the individual’s needs.

VII. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста.

Additional information

VII. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2 и 3 абзацы текста.
1. All human behaviour is motivated - that is directed toward the achievement of some goal which will satisfy a particular need. The motives directing our behaviour may be classified as biological drives and psychological and social drives. The biological drives are inborn. They are present in all people of all races as well as in the lower animals. The biological drives operate as regulatory mechanisms, helping the organism to maintain a constant internal environment. This is the most basic aspect of homeostasis.
2.Many of the most important human motives derive from psychological and social drives (the need for security, the need to respond to others through the exchange of love and esteem, the need for approval and some degree of prestige, and the need for new experience).
3.Psychologists have not determined the exact origin of even our most basic psychological and social drives but most of them are probably acquired as the result of past experience. They may result from a learning process in which symbolic rewards or punishments are important in directing behaviour. We may be motivated by acquired fears and desires to avoid certain experiences or to achieve rewards and incentives. Often our behaviour is directed by learned motives of which we are not even aware.
4.Man’s psychological and social motives operate as homeostatic mechanisms. They motivate the individual to create and maintain an environment in which his needs can be satisfied.

VIII. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и письменно ответьте на вопрос:
How do man’s psychological and social motives operate?


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