Английский, вариант 2 (What Is a Business?)

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Вариант 2
1. Напишите транскрипцию и переведите на русский язык следующие английские слова: profitability cost control department firm superprofits
offshore to calculate account to trade currency rate holding balance
customer price

2. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужной видовременной форме.
1. The convention has already begun.
2. I think he made into consideration her notes yesterday.
3. He always reads the «Independent» before dinner.
4. Next year my brother will work at a stock exchange.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения, укажите какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s. Служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3 лица, единственного числа глагола в Present Indefinite;
б) показателем множественного числа существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного местоимения существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The whole point of free trade is that it makes counties specialize in industries where they have a comparative advantage.
2. The state is a system of official institutions and organs.
3. Management is the art of getting things done through other people.
4. It includes the personnel who have the right to make decisions that influence company´s affairs.

4.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания: to make into consideration, economic theory, to sign a contract, at a stock exchange.

5.Переведите на русский язык текст.
What Is a Business?
The human body requires a minimum of food, drink and protection fr om the extremes of climate in order to survive. People co-operate in order to satisfy these basic needs, with the family as the most basic economic group.
Very early in human history it was realized that individuals possessed different talents, and if they concentrated their efforts on the activities in which they excelled the standard of living of the whole community would improve. This specialization also implied that trade would have to take place. The weaver might have had a higher standard of living by concentrating all effort oh making cloth. She or he also needed food and shelter which would be provided by other people. The activities in which people engaged were no longer directed towards the satisfaction of all their needs but were concentrated in a relatively narrow range of goods and services which they would exchange with other people. People began to be described by the work they did, a development which is reflected in some British family names (Weaver, Butcher, Farmer, Smith, etc.)
In developed economies very few people attempt to satisfy the full range of their needs and wants by their own direct work. Most people sell their skills as carpenter, teacher, plumber, manager, accountant or lawyer to other people, and use the money they get in return to buy the goods and services they need to live. The activities necessary to provide us with the goods and services we want are carried out in factories, mines, workshops, shops and offices, wh ere a group of people with different skills can co-operate to produce goods and services for sale to other people. Some people, of course, continue to work from home for a variety of reasons. It may be cheaper, or more convenient or the amount of work undertaken may not justify a separate workshop or office.
A business may be simply defined as a person or group of people buying in goods and services in order to produce other goods and services for the purpose of sale at a profit.
The definition leaves a problem. What about the people employed in state education, the health service, defence and other central and local government activities? They are excluded by this definition. The problem lies in the way we use the word «business» - that is, to describe organizations that buy and sell for a profit. However, central and local government organizations share many of the same problems and use the same techniques as commercial enterprises.


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