Английский, вариант 5 (Lise Meitner)

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Контрольная работа №2
Вариант №5

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
а) 1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.
2. Astronomers find that the day is increasing by 0.002 seconds each century.
б) 1. The comical properties of the element are determined by the orbiting electrons.
2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed numerous others.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.
2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occurring in nature.
3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.
4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. We can think of a heat as a special form of kinetic energy.
2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
4. To measure the vast distance between different planets scientists have to use special instruments.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 4-ый абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-ой и 3-ий абзацы. Письменно ответьте на вопрос после текста.

Lise Meitner (1878-1968)
1. In 1938, an Austrian physicist named Lise Meitner announced the splitting of the atom in the laboratory. That announcement confirmed once again the beginning of the Atomic Age. At that time Lise Meitner was one of the few persons in the world who had a thought understanding of atomic energy and the uses which could be made of this great power.
2. Lise Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna on the 17th of November 1878. She grew interested in science when she read of the Curies’ discovery of radium. The example of Marie Curie showed that a woman was able to achieve something in science. Lise Meitner became the first woman in the history of the University of Vienna who earned her doctorate in physics.
3. In 1906 she went to the University of Berlin to continue her studies by attending the theoretical lectures of Max Planck and by doing experimental work. Then she began her research in the new field of radioactivity. She focused her attention on the behavior of beta radiation from radioactive elements, experimenting with the primitive methods then available for measuring and analyzing radioactivity. Meitner’s work in the 1920s and the early 1930s emphasized the physical aspects of radioactivity.
4. In 1938 she left Germany for Sweden. Lise Meitner declined to work on the development of the atom bomb remaining in Sweden throughout the war. She was concerned with the properties of new radioactive isotopes, produced by cyclotron. Her career was illustrious and productive (she published more than 135 scientific papers), but throughout her life she remained a shy person, with a deep interest in music. Her devotion to science had been total. She never married. In 1960 she moved to Cambridge, England, where she died in 1968.

Vocabulary
Meitner – Майтнер
doctorate – докторская степень
then available – доступные в то время
illustrious – прославленный, известный
productive - плодотворный

Question
Why can we say that Meitner’s career was illustrious and productive?

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