Concepts of modern science of the 2 tests RIU

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Text reference work on the subject "Concepts of modern science 2" RIU
Task 1.
Question 1: What is science?
1. Life Sciences;
2. The branch of philosophy;
3. The science of nature as a single integrity;
4. The set of isolated natural sciences;
5. The science of man.
Question 2. What is the scale of the phenomena and processes characterizes the microscopic level of organization of matter?
1. 10-15-10-16 cm
2. 10-12 - 10-13 cm
3. 10-8-10-7 cm
4. 10-1 - August 10 cm
5. Oct. 11 - Oct. 28 cm
Question 3. What is the point of view of the ratio of natural science and human cultures is now generally accepted?
1. The denial of any kind was common ground between natural science and human cultures;
2. Recognition of Natural History with its precise methods of research as a model for all science in general;
3. The denial of the general trends in the development of natural science and human cultures;
4. The denial of any distinction between natural science and human cultures;
5. The simultaneous recognition of the existence of differences between cultures, and general trends in their development;
Question 4: What is the analogy?
1. The method of research facilities on their models;
2. The process of abstraction, creating a mental concept of the idealized object;
3. The ability to comprehend the truth through direct its discretion, without justification;
4. The reception of knowledge, in which on the basis of similarity of objects by one characteristic is their similarity and other grounds;
5. The method of judgment or justification of the truth of the theory with the help of logical reasoning, and practical tools.
Question 5. Which of these methods corresponds to the level of empirical research?
1. The reasoning;
2. modeling;
3. Measurement;
4. idealization;
5. intuition.
Task 2.
Question 1: What was the name of the world concept, put forward by the Pythagoreans philosophers?
1. geocentric;
2. heliocentric;
3. pirotsentricheskaya;
4. eccentric;
5. egocentric.
Question 2. What is the science of nature, received at the logical conclusion of the teachings of Aristotle?
1. Astronomy;
2. physics;
3. The logic;
4. natural philosophy;
5. Ethics.
Question 3. Who is an outstanding scientist mathematician Alexandrian period?
1. Thales;
2. Euclid;
3. Pythagoras;
4. Anaximander;
5. Heraclitus.
Question 4. Who was the biggest astronomer in the East in the XIV century.?
1. Avicenna;
2. Copernicus;
3. Biruni;
4. Ptolemy;
5. Ulugbek.
Question 5. What was the name of religious-idealist philosophy, became widespread in medieval Europe?
1. scholasticism;
2. mechanism;
3. Christianity;
4. agnosticism;
5. positivism.
Task 3.
Question 1. What principle was formulated by Galileo in the proof of the Copernican heliocentric system of justice?
1. The principle of subsidiarity;
2. The principle of conformity;
3. The principle of inertia;
4. The principle of systems;
5. Uncertainty Principle.
Question 2: Which of the scientific achievements of Kepler belongs?
1. The discovery of the law of universal gravitation;
2. The formulation of the classical principle of relativity;
3. The discovery of the law of free falling bodies;
4. The discovery of the laws of planetary motion;
5. The discovery of the law of conservation of mass.
Question 3. What is the scientific achievement associated with the beginning of the formation of physics as an independent science?
1. Development of Lomonosov atomic molecular theory;
2. The development of Galileo's experimental method;
3. The creation of Archimedes doctrine of equilibrium of bodies;
4. The creation of the Torricelli doctrine of atmospheric pressure;
5. The opening of galvanic electricity.
Question 4. Who are the scientists developed the principles of differential calculus?

Additional information

Task 5.
Question 1. What treatise formulated foundations of classical mechanics?
1. "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Circles";
2. "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy";
3. "Discourse on Method";
4. "New Organon";
5. "start."
Question 2: Which of the laws of nature is connected with the homogeneity of space?
1. The law of conservation of momentum;
2. The law of conservation of mechanical energy;
3. The law of conservation of mass;
4. The law of inertia;
5. The law of action and reaction.
Question 3. Which of the mathematicians proved the existence of a link symmetry of space and time with the conservation laws?
1. Gauss;
2. Newton;
3. Leibniz;
4. Noether;
5. Rome.
Question 4. Which of the following statements is correct?
1. entropy is related to the degree of disorder in the system;
2. irreversible processes the entropy decreases;
3. for reversible processes the entropy increases;
4. Entropy has the dimension of energy;
5. The concept of entropy was introduced into science by Helmholtz.
Question 5. What serves as the thermodynamic arrow of time?
1. The specific heat;
2. enthalpy;
3. temperature;
4. entropy;
5. internal energy.
Task 6.
Question 1. Which of the following statements is correct?
1. The short-established concept in physics after the discovery of the law of universal gravitation;
2. According to the concept of short-range interaction between the bodies is carried out through an empty space, does not participate in the transmission of interaction;
3. In accordance with the concept of short-range transmission of interaction is instantaneous;
4. According to the concept of short-range transmission of interaction occurs at a finite rate;
5. The concept of short-range led to the discovery of Coulomb's law.
Question 2. What fact has been established by Oersted?
1. The interaction of turned fixed electric charges;
2. The effect of electric current on the magnetic needle;
3. The electrical nature of lightning;
4. The excitement of electricity in animal tissues;
5. The excitation of an electric current in the circuit is located in an alternating magnetic field.
Question 3: Who are the scientists first proposed the concept of the electromagnetic field?
1. Lomonosov;
2. Pendant;
3. Faraday;
4. Einstein;
5 Amps.
Question 4. What is the basis of the theory of electromagnetism?
1. Clausius;
2. The principle of action at a distance;
3. Schrödinger equation;
4. Maxwell's equations;
5. The law of universal gravitation.
Question 5. Which of the following scientific achievements belongs to Hertz?
1. The discovery of the phenomenon of diffraction;
2. The wording of the law of conservation of energy for thermal phenomena;
3. The first registration of electromagnetic waves;
4. The transfer of the world's first radio messages;
5. The discovery of the electron.
Task 7.
Question 1. What is the area of \u200b\u200bphysics appears in the classical principle of relativity of Galileo?
1. electrodynamics;
2. optics;
3. Mechanics;
4. Thermodynamics;
5. acoustics.
Question 2. How many of physicists proposed the coordinate transformation used in the special theory of relativity?
1. Poincare;
2. Einstein;
3. Plank;
4. Lorenz;
5. Maxwell.
Question 3. What effect was proposed by Einstein to confirm the general theory of relativity?
1. The red shift of the solar spectrum;
2. The splitting of spectral linear under the influence of a magnetic field;
3. The splitting of spectral linear under the influence of an electric field;
4. The change in the frequency of photons by scattering electrons;
5. superfluidity of helium.
Question 4. Who are the scientists predicted the phenomenon of expansion of the universe based on the decision of gravitation


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