English, option 2

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Option 2
Legal Professions in Great Britain
Freedom has to be restricted. This is done by the law which prohibits certain actions because they are against the interests of most citizens. But there is no point in having laws unless they can be enforced. Laws are enforced in two ways. First by the police, whose duty is to catch offenders. Second by the Law Courts which find out whether a person is innocent or guilty. If he is guilty, the courts then award punishment, either a fine or a term of imprisonment.
The court system depends upon the legal profession to make it work. In Britain the legal profession is divided into two branches: barristers and solicitors. The division has a number of significant impacts upon the judiciary system. The English judiciary system is organized in a very different plan. They have no Ministry of Justice. Some of the functions of such a ministry are distributed among the members of the Cabinet; to a certain extent the Home Secretary is their minister of criminal justice, and to a less extent the Lord Chancellor is their minister of civil justice.
The traditional picture of the English lawyer is that the solicitor is the legal adviser of the public. The solicitor may conduct client's case in the lower courts. The barrister can be consulted only through the solicitor; he has the sole right of audience in the higher courts. There is approximately one solicitor to every one thousand three hundred of the population, with considerable regional and local variations. There is a heavy concentration in commercial centers. The ratio for barristers is about one per every ten thousand. But a lot of work in English solicitors' offices is undertaken by managing clerks, now called "legal executives", who are the third type of lawyers.
The judge is the presiding officer of the court. Judges are not themselves a separate profession: they are barristers who have been elevated to the bench, itself a name derived from the part of the Court where they sit. The judge decides the interpretation of the law. The strength of the British legal system lies in the position of the judges. Once they are appointed it is practically impossible to dismiss them as long as they remain of "good behaviour".
The jury system is one of the most distinctive features of the British justice. A jury consists of twelve people who are householders, selected at random by the officers of the court. Notice that they are not legal specialists, but simply ordinary men and women who have been ordered to attend at the trial. With a few exceptions, juries are seldom employed today in civil cases. In criminal cases involving more than three months 'imprisonment, which are not tried by the magistrates' courts, the trial must be by a jury.
The professional judges, "High Court Judges", deal with the most serious crimes. They are paid salaries by the state. But in Britain, the vast majority of judges are unpaid, doing their work voluntarily, and they are called Magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs). They are usually well-known local citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have "sound common sense". They are appointed by the Lord Chancellor.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from different professions and social classes.

Additional information

Assignments to version 2
Task 1. Write down the text of the nouns in the plural form, and translate them into Russian.

Task 2. Write down the text of eight to ten constructions with the preposition «of» and translate them into Russian.

Task 3. Form the comparative and superlative adjectives following: heavy, interesting, innocent, low, good. Turn them into Russian.

Task 4. Find all the numerals in the text and write them in the form of numbers, in order of appearance (repetitive numerals can be written only once).

Task 5. a) Write down the text of the four proposals, which are predicates in the 3rd person singular and plural forms Present Simple (Indefinite), translate them into Russian.
b) Put these suggestions:
1) in the negative and questions;
2) the simple past time (Past Simple);
3) Future simple (Future Simple).
c) Write down all the suggestions predicates which is used in one of the group time Continuous or Perfect. Specify the time, put the proposal to the Russian language.

Task 6. Write down the text of all predicates in the passive voice, define the predicate. Translated into Russian.

Task 7. Write down the modal verbs from the text, specify their value translated into Russian.

Task 8. Write down the text of impersonal forms of the verb:
a) the infinitive;
b) Communion I / II;
c) the gerund.
Specify the form in which they are used in the text, and the function they perform. Translated into Russian. In the absence of any of impersonal forms, the corresponding item in the performance of work falls.

Task 9. Read the text again and move the writing paragraphs 1,3,4 and 5.


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