English version 4 (Harvard University)

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Option 4
Task 1. Rewrite and translate offer by paying attention to the use of modal verbs. Emphasize modal verbs in English and translated sentences.
1 Both direct and alternating current may be used on electrified railways.
2. Steel, which is used for the production of rails, must be of high quality.
3. The double-track railways are more convenient than single-track railways because the trains do not have to wait for the other trains to pass.
4. They were not allowed to take part in the discussion.
5. W. Murdock could construct a working model of a small steel locomotive.

Task 2. Rewrite and translate offer by paying attention to the use of group times Continuous (Present, Past, Future) and a group of Perfect (Present, Past, Future) in the real and the passive voice. Write down the predicates and specify their vidovremennyh form.
1. According to schedule this train was due to arrive at 12.30, but because of track repair work, it is being delayed.
2. The passengers were invited to get on the train and now they are saying good bye to those who had come to see them off.
3. China is planning to construct several thousand kilometers of track for the transportation of passengers and trains.

Task 3. Rewrite and translate the suggestions put a verb in the correct form.
1. The new three wagon Tank Train (to test -Present Perfect Passive) in severe winter conditions on the Alaska Railroad.
2. The construction of both the bridge and the dam (to complete - Future Perfect Passive) by the beginning of the navigation season.
3. At present 2,500 km of high speed lines (to construct - Present Continuous Passive) in Europe and Asia.

Task 4. Rewrite and translate the proposals by the correct form of the predicate (Active or Passive)
1. Air-conditioning system always (maintains; is maintained) the optimum temperature and humidity in the carriage.
2. A new high-speed railway line (is building; is being built) in the North of Russia now.
3. The flood (has caused, has been caused) considerable damage to the railway track.

Task 5. Rewrite and translate the text.
Harvard University.
Harvard University is a private coeducational institution of higher education, the oldest in the USA. A college was founded by the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1636. It was opened for instruction two years later and was named in 1639 for English clergyman John Harvard, its first sponsor.
The main university campus lies along the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a few miles west of downtown Boston. The University has grown from nine students with a single master to an enrollment of more than 18,000 degree candidates, including undergraduates and students in 10 principal academic units. An additional 13,000 students are enrolled in one or more courses in the Harvard Extension School. Harvard's total enrollment is about 20,000. Over 14,000 people work at Harvard, including more than 2,000 faculties.
Harvard gradually acquired considerable autonomy and private financial support, becoming a charted university in 1780. From its earliest days, Harvard established and maintained a tradition of academic excellence and the training of citizens for national public service.
Harvard's undergraduate school, Harvard College, contains about one-third of the total student body. The core of the university's teaching staff consists of the faculty of arts and sciences, which includes the graduate faculty of arts and sciences. The university has graduate or professional schools of medicine, law, business, divinity, education, government, dental medicine, design, and publichealth. The schools of law, medicine, and business are particularly prestigious.
The average college course of study is 4 years. ....

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The average college course of study is 4 years. The academic year is usually nine months or two terms (semesters) of four and a half months each. The first-year students are called freshmen. Students choose a major subject (profiling discipline) and take many courses in this subject. After four years they get a traditional Bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on to graduate school (senior courses) and with a year or two of further study get a Master's degree and then after another year or two of study and research they may get a still higher degree as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph . D.). The student's progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works and final examinations in each course. The student's work is given a mark, usually on a five-point scale (5-point scale). Letters indicate the level of achievement. "A" is the highest mark, "F" denotes a failure. The methods of instruction in the university are lectures, discussions, laboratory and course works or seminars.
By the end of the 20th century Harvard had educated six US presidents - John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Rutherford B. Hayes, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy - and a number of justices, cabinet officers and congressional leaders , literary figures, historians, chemists and naturalists.

Task 6. Indicate which of the following statements correspond to the content of the text. Use phrases: It is right. It is wrong. Correct false statements.
Sample: 1) Higher education is given in colleges and universities. It is right.
2) The academic year is usually 8 months or two terms (semesters) of four months each. It is wrong. The academic year is usually nine months or two terms (semesters) of four and a half months each.
1. Harvard college was founded by the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1638.
2. An additional 13,000 students are enrolled in one or more courses in the Harvard Extension School.
3. After five years students get a traditional Bachelor's degree.
4. The student's progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works and final examinations in each course.
5. The methods of instruction in the university are lectures, discussions, laboratory and course works or seminars.

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