English version 4 (MACHINE-TOOLS)

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1. Замените модальные глаголы соответствующими эквивалентами и переведите предложения:
1. I must attend this meeting.
2. Nobody could translate this text.
3. She might work in our room.

2. Преобразуйте предложения из прямой речи в косвенную и переведите на русский язык:
1. The mother said to the child, "The weather is fine and you can have a walk for two hours."
2. He asked, "How will he find it out?"
3. "I am afraid of the exam", said the girl.
4. "Please, don´t smoke here", said the professor.
5. "Could you send me a copy of your book, please," he said.

3. Преобразуйте предложения из косвенной речи в прямую и переведите на русский язык:
1. Jack said that he had seen her the day before.
2. She said that she would like to sleep in the open air.
3. She asked me if I was going to leave the town the next day.
4. They told us they would go to the cinema with us.
5. He said that he had spoken to the manager about the terms of delivery of the machine.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. You should have helped them.
2. You needn´t come so early.
3. Would you tell me the way to the station?
4. Who can answer my question?
5. He said that they had come by car.
6. The doctor thinks that I have been working too much.

5. Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык:
1. Лекция должна начаться в 8 часов.
2. Он сказал, что видел их друга вчера в парке.
3. Вы можете найти инженера в лаборатории.
4. Учитель прочитал рассказ детям.
5. Можно мне оставить вещи здесь?

6. Прочитайте и письменно переведите на русский язык текст:
1. Machine-tools are used to shape metals and other materials. The material to be shaped is called the workpiece. Most machine-tools are now electrically driven. Machine-tools with electrical drive are faster and more accurate than hand tools: they were an important element in the development of mass-production processes, as they allowed individual parts to be made in large numbers so as to be interchangeable.
2. All machine-tools have facilities for holding both the workpiece and the tool, and for accurately controlling the movement of the cutting tool relatively to the workpiece. Most machining operations generate large amounts of heat, and cooling fluids (usually a mixture of water and oils) must be used for cooling and lubrication.
3. Machine-tools usually work materials mechanically but other machining methods have been developed lately. They include chemical machining, spark erosion to machine very hard materials to any shape by means of a continuous high-voltage spark (discharge) between an electrode and a workpiece. Other machining methods include drilling using ultrasound, and cutting by means of a laser beam. Numerical control of machine-tools and flexible manufacturing systems have made it possible for complete systems of machine-tools to be used flexibly for the manufacture of a range of products.
4. Lathe is still the most important machine-tool. It produces parts of circular cross-section by turning the workpiece on its axis and cutting its surface with a sharp stationary tool. The tool may be moved sideways to produce a cylindrical part and moved towards the workpiece to control the depth of cut. Nowadays all lathes are power-driven by electric motors. That allows continuous rotation of the workpiece at a variety of speeds. The modern lathe is driven by means of a headstock supporting a hollow spindle on accurate bearings and carrying either a chuck or a faceplate, to which the workpiece is clamped. The movement of the tool, both along the lathe bed and at right angle to it, can be accurately controlled, so enabling a part to be machined to close tolerances.

Additional information

7. Составьте словарь к тексту.

8. Прочитайте текст снова и письменно ответьте на вопросы:
1. What are machine-tools used for?
2. What facilities do all machine-tools have?
3. What parts can be made with lathes?
4. How can the cutting tool be moved on a lathe?
5. What is the most important machine-tool?


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