Контрольная по английскому №3. Вариант 1.

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The Individual and Society
Most introductory textbooks on Economics begin by posing the question, “What is Economics about?” Although Economics is a vast subject and precise definitions are usually very complex, it is not a difficult matter to give a simple and sensible answer to the basic question. Economics is essentially a study of the ways in which people apply their knowledge, skills, and efforts to the gifts of nature in order to satisfy their material wants.
Economics limits itself to the study of the material aspects of live, and while it is true that man cannot live by bread alone, it is equally true that he cannot live without it. An underlying problem in economics is that of survival and we must examine how people have solved or are trying to solve this problem. In the more advanced countries this may seem a very remote problem — few people, if any, are conscious of a life or death struggle for existence. In many other countries, however, the continuity of human existence is by no means assured - starvation is a very real prospect for millions of human beings.
Even in the prosperous economically advanced countries there is an aspect of survival which attracts little or no attention from those of us fortunate enough to live in these areas. This is our relative helplessness as ‘economic’ individuals. The Indian peasants have an extremely low standard of living, yet, left completely to their own devices, they can survive. Such people have the abilities to sustain life without outside assistance. A large percentage of the human race still lives in very small self-sufficient peasant communities. These people experience great poverty, but they can provide on an individual basis for their own survival. They have a degree of economic independence.
If we now turn to the inhabitants of New York, London, or any other great metropolitan area we must observe the opposite situation – a high standard of living together with an extreme economic dependence. The inhabitants of cities are totally incapable of providing for themselves, directly, the means of their survival. They could not feed themselves, or build their own houses. Such people depend, each every day of their lives, on the efforts and cooperation of many thousand of specialist workers. In industrialized societies a high standard of living is possible only if the organized cooperation of large numbers of people can be guaranteed. In the economically developed countries we are rich, not as individuals, but only as members of a complex economic organization.
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inhabitants, precise, prospect, vast, standard, percentage, means, human
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