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Контрольная по английскому. Вариант 1.

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1. Перепишите предложении. Подчеркните глагол-сказуемое в каждом из них и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Например: will be said - Future Simple Passive. В разделе (В) обратите внимание на особенности перевода пассивных конструкций.

A). 1. In centrally planned economies government planners decide what goods will be produced. 2. Many nations of Eastern Europe arc undergoing transition from communism to capitalism. 3. Before 1988 Hungary had taxed successful companies in order to provide subsidies for inefficient companies. 4. Some nations of Eastern Europe took steps to join the ranks of Western developed nations in becoming mixed economies.

B). 1. Such economies are called traditional economies. 2. Some countries exhibit elements of traditional economies in their tendency to make economic decisions according to how things have been done in the past. 3. Profitable companies are allowed to keep a large share of their profit. 4. In centrally planned economies government planners set the prices at which goods arc sold. 5. The work people do is called economic activity. 6. Once the simple tools of labour were made, the need arose among the primitive men to communicate with one another. 7.1 have just been told 1 shall get better wages next month. 8. Nothing more will be said about the matter. 9. This door must be kept shut. 10. The market is being investigated.

2. Перепишите предложения; подчеркните Participle 1, Participle II и установите функции каждою их них, т.е. укажите, будет ли оно определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Предложения переведите.

1. People, working in fanning, take a great risk if they decide to use untried new techniques. 2. The transition from a system of common ownership to a system of private ownership has never occurred before´ on a wide scale. 3. So far the experiment in farming is doing well in Poland. 4. Shifting from communism to capitalism many countries have to overcome serious economic problems. 5. Producing in the most sufficient manner entrepreneurs get high profits.

3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

1. A traditional economy may have elements of capitalism or socialism. 2. According to communist theory people contribute what they arc able to the economy, but receive what they need. 3. People could decide how the fruits of their labour and capital would be shared. 4. Nearly half of the working people of the plant will probably have to find new jobs. 5. If a person works harder, he must get a higher salary.

4. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов It, that, since, one, for, as.

1. 1 consider it important to do this work today. 2. It is at the club that 1 usually meet him. 3. One must read very much. 4.1 haven´t got such a textbook, 1 must buy one. 5.1 have lived in that street for ten years. 6. As the child was too young to travel by herself, they arranged for her to travel in the care of a friend of the family.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to he, to have. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Our task is to study well. 2.He wasn´t at the last meeting. 3. He was sent to Moscow. 4. The train is to arrive at 5. 5. He has finished his work. 6.1 have to do it. 7. 1 want to have a smoke. 8.1 had my shoes repaired. 9. Don´t come at 9 tomorrow. 10. Does he do his work well?

6. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. То develop high standards of products is to stay competitive. 2. The problem was impossible to solve. 3. We agreed to be helped. 4.1 need time to consider your proposal. 5. He will enter the University to study Economics.

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7. Перепишите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. Переведите предложения на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на тот факт, что в русском языке правила согласования времен отсутствуют.

1. She asked if he´d like to go to the concert and 1 said that I was sure he would. 2. He asked what the weather had been like during my holiday and I said it had been awful. 3.1 asked her if she´d like to borrow the book but she thanked me and said she had already read it and hadn´t liked it very much. 4. He said it made no difference.
8. Переведите текст "The Traditional Есоnоmу" письменно, используя словарь.
The Traditional Economy
In many developing countries long-established custom provides answers to the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions. In these economies ways of doing things are passed down from generation to generation. If your father was a carpenter, you are likely to be a carpenter. If your parents were poor, you are likely to be poor. Economic and other decisions may be made by a group of elders, who follow the beliefs and practices of previous generations. Such economies are called traditional ones.
Developing nations such as Ethiopia, the Sudan and Bolivia exhibit elements of traditional economies in their tendency to make economic decisions accordingly to how things have been done in the past. The answers to the "what", "how" and "for whom" questions in these countries are: produce what they have always produced; produce the way they have always produced; and distribute income and wealth as they have been distributed in the past.
A traditional economy may have elements of capitalism or socialism, but it is predominantly traditional in the way economic decisions are made. Traditional economies exist because people lack the opportunities to learn new ways - they simply learn how to do the job their parents do. People living on subsistence incomes take a great risk if they try a new technology or change production strategies. Farmers whose families’ lives depend directly on the success of their crops take a great risk if they decide to use untried "new" techniques in their farming. In addition new technologies often involve capital expenditures well beyond the cash available to farmers in the less developed countries.


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