Variant 2

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Sold: 2 last one 24.05.2018
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Uploaded: 28.02.2016
Content: КР 2_Вариант 2.doc 71,5 kB

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3. The new materials recommended for bridge construction were
described in the article written by our professor.
IX. Перепишите и переведите текст
For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow
was discussed before the revolution. However, the construction of the first
section (from Sokolniki to Central Park) was initiated only in 1932. It lasted
3 years and was called the record period by the world press. The Russian
engineers carefully studied the existing underground systems abroad before
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working out their own project, which represented a significant improvement of
the London system.
The engineering difficulties were great mainly because much of the soil
was composed of running sand*. Fortunately most of the running sand lay
close to the surface and it was found possible to use out-and-cover method**
of construction under many of the streets. However, in the city center where
the line is 100 ft or deeper, the construction of tunnels was necessary.
The Moscow Underground consists of a circle line, which runs round the
city center, several radial lines crossing the city and connecting with each
other and the lines running to the countryside. Some constructional work is
still going on. Now the length of the underground lines has reaches about
300 km.
At present, the Moscow Metro handles more than five million passengers
each day. During peak hours trains run at a speed of 90 km/h with the
intervals of about 80 seconds. One train takes up to 1,500 passengers.
For greater safety of travel, all trains are inspected every 6-9 hours of
running. Being in operation for about 13 hours daily each Metro train covers
the distance equal to that from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The trains servicing
the Underground are supplied with low voltage direct current. The current is
obtained from the third rail by special devices that are mounted beneath the
motor coaches. Rolling stock is completely replaced approximately once
every four years.
The Moscow Metro can compete with the underground railways in any of
the European capitals in level of automation. At present, the experiments are
being conducted with an “automatic driver”, i.e. with computer-controlled
trains. The computer devices will help to relieve the nervous strain on the
drivers and make it possible to increase the cruising speed*** of trains even
more. These automatic devices have already been tested over the Circle
Route by way of experiment.
Notes: * running sand – сыпучий песок, плывун
** cut-and-cover method – открытый метод (строительства)
*** cruising speed – эксплуатационная скорость
X. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием
1. Was the possibility of constructing Metro in Moscow discussed before
the revolution for the first time?
2. Did the building of the Moscow Underground begin in 1917?
3. Did the project of the Moscow Metro represent a significant
improvement of the London system?
4. Were all lines constructed, using cut-and-cover method?
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5. Does the Moscow Metro consist of a circle line and 2 radial ones?
6. Is the construction of the Metro still going on?
7. Do Metro trains run with the intervals of about 8 minutes during
peak hours?
8. Are all trains inspected for greater safety of travel every week?
9. Can the Moscow Metro compete with the underground lines of other
countries in level of automation?
10. Will an “automatic driver” replace hard man’s labor in future?


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