I. Set the writing nouns (1-10). Select determination (aj), corresponding to a noun:
1) consumer a) the exchange of a commodity for money
2) generation b) the act of making something smaller in size or amount
3) demand c) a business organization created under a government charter
4) product d) a group of people of similar age
5) competition e) what remains after the costs of doing business
6) firm f) the rivalry among buyers and sellers in the purchase and sale of resources and products
7) profit g) anyone who uses goods and / or services
8) sale h) a small organization which sells or produce something
9) corporation i) the good or service one receives in an exchange
10) reduction j) a consumer's willingness and ability to buy a product or service
II. The following proposals underline determination expressed by a noun, and translate these proposals into Russian.
1) During the mid-eighties, the USA had a large trade deficit with European Union.
2) Greater Manchester is one of the world's most compact and crowded metropolitan areas.
3) The paper and printing industry is stable, reflecting Manchester's status as the second centre of newspaper production in England.
III. The following proposals emphasize the verb-predicate determine its shape and vidovremennyh bail. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.
1) Heavy damage from aerial bombing during World War II brought the greatest setback in the history of modem London.
2) Contracts between local purchasing organizations and peasant householders are signed before the agricultural season begins.
3) In different parts of the world many different commodities have served as money.
IV. The following proposals emphasize modal verb or its equivalent. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.
1) Any Western firm is interested only in selling what it has to offer.
2) Similar processes were to be observed in the petroleum sphere.
3) The House of Lords may delay certain Bills but can not finally Veto them.
V. The following proposals emphasize Participle Participle 1 and 2, and specify whether it is a definition, fact, or a part of the verb-predicate. Turn suggestions on the Russian language.
1) By the late 1970s farmers were convinced that inflation and continued growth in exports would keep prices rising.
2) The company can buy a sizable share of stock and offer it to the victim, depending on who pays more.
3) Taking into consideration the expanded changes in price, the total turnover of raw materials will increase.
VI. Read and orally translated into Russian, the entire text. Rewrite and translate the writing paragraphs 1.2.
Forces Affecting Modern Marketing
1. An important influence in marketing theory is the continuous and rapid change in consumer interests and desires. Consumers today are more sophisticated than those of past generations. They attend school for much longer; they are exposed to newspapers, magazines, movies, radio, television, and travel; and they have much greater interaction with other people. Their demands are more exacting. "Positioning" the product that is, determining the exact segment of the population, and then developing a marketing campaign to enhance the product's image to fit that particular segment requires great care and planning.
2. Competition also has sharply intensified, as the number of firms engaged in producing similar products has increased. Each firm tries to differentiate its products from those of its competitors. Profit margins, meaning the profit percentages made by a business per dollar of sales, are constantly being lessened. While costs continue to rise, competition tends to keep prices down. The result is a narrowing spread between costs and selling prices, and an increase in a business sales volume is necessary to maintain or increase profit.