English (Smart materials)

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Verification work number 3
in English for students of all technical specialties of the Polar Division
Option 2
III Semester

I. Read and translate the text (oral).
SMART MATERIALS
Smart - or shape memory - materials are an invention that has changed the world of engineering. There are two types of such materials: metal alloys and plastic polymers. The metal alloys were made first and they are usually an expensive mixture of titanium and nickel.
Shape memory materials are called 'smart' because they react to changes in their environment, for example:
• plastics that return to their original shape when the temperature changes; One use is in
surgery where plastic threads 'remember' the shape of a knot, react to the patient's body
temperature and make themselves into stitches.
• metal alloys that have a 'memory' and can return to their original shape. They are used in medical implants that are compressed, so they can be put inside the patient's body through a small cut. The implant then expands back to its original shape. More everyday uses are for flexible spectacle frames and teeth braces, solids that darken in sunlight, like the lenses in some sunglasses.
• liquid crystals that change shape and colour. These have been used in climbing ropes that
change colour if there is too much strain and weight on them.
The future of these materials and their possible uses is limited only by human imagination. One clever idea is that if cars were made of smart metal, a minor accident could be repaired by leaving the car in the sun!
The first reported steps towards the discovery of the shape-memory effect were taken in the 1930s. The nickel-titanium alloys were first developed in 1962-1963 by the United States Naval Ordnance Laboratory. Their remarkable properties were discovered by accident. A sample that was bent out of shape many times was presented at a laboratory management meeting. One of the technical directors decided to see what would happen if the sample was subjected to heat and held his pipe lighter underneath it. To everyone's amazement the sample stretched back to its original shape.

II. Choose the right answer to questions about the text.
1. What time could smart materials be referred to?
a) the invention of the 19th century
b) the invention of our time
c) the old Persian technology
2. What characteristics do the smart materials exhibit?
a) dissipating after heating
b) changing the melting point
c) returning to their original form
3. When were the first nickel-titanium alloys developed?
a) 1930s
b) 1962-1963
c) the 21st century

III. Complete the sentence on the content of the text read.
4. Smart materials ...
a) are a new development in engineering.
b) are very old.
c) are manufactured everywhere.

5. Materials that react to changes in environment are ...
and) called as alloys.
b) only plastics.
c) called as smart materials.
6. There ...
a) is a need in smart materials in medicine.
b) are three types of smart materials.
c) are experiments with aluminum-titanium alloys.
7. One of the laboratory directors ...
a) broke the sample.
b) decided to heat the sample.
c) exposed the sample to light.
8. After heating, the sample ...
a) returned to its original shape.
b) did not change the form.
c) evaporated.

IV. Pick the Russian equivalent to this word.
9. Alloy
a) alloy b) polymer c) metal
10. The mixture
a) powder b) mixture c) gas
11. Node
a) cable b) rope c) knot
12. seam
a) thread b) line c) stitch
13. Liquid
a) solid b) liquid c) transient

V. Select the appropriate definition of these terms.
a) by accident b) original c) strain d) react
e) flexible f) shape-memory effect g) lenses h) to subject to heat
14. tension
15. initial
16. to warm to a certain temperature
17. by chance
18. magnif

Additional information

VI. Прочитайте предложения и укажите, сoответствует ли данное утверждение действительности: если соответствует, напишите после предложения Т – true, если не соответствует, то F – false, при этом подтвердите ваш ответ примером из текста.
22. Liquid crystals can change shape and colour.
23. The future of smart materials and their possible uses is limited by modern technologies.
24. A serious car accident can be repaired by leaving the car in the sun already nowadays.

VII. Выберите правильную видовременную форму глагола.
25. The invention of smart materials has changed the world of engineering.
26. The metal alloys … first in 1962-1963.
a) has been made b) made c) were made
27. Metal alloys have a ´memory´ and … return to their original shape.
a) are to b) must c) can
28. Plastics … to their original shape when the temperature changes.
a) return b) returned c) returns
29. Liquid crystals … already … in climbing ropes that change colour if there is too much strain and weight on them.
a) have been used b) have used c) have been using

VIII. Заполните пропуски предлогами.
30. The sample was subjected … heat.
a) by b) with c) to
31. Smart materials with shape memory react … changes
a) with b) on c) to
32. A sample under research was presented … a meeting.
a) at b) on c) in

IX. Заполните пропуски прилагательным или наречием в нужной форме.
33. Alloys have … properties than the materials they are made of.
a) the best b) better c) good
34. Liquid crystals can be … than ordinary markers.
a) more reliable b) reliable c) the most reliable
35. The scientists should work … to develop smart materials.
a) hard b) harder c) hardly

X. Переведите текст (письменно).
Many metals have several different crystal structures at the same composition, but most metals do not show this shape-memory effect. The special property that allows shape-memory alloys to revert to their original shape after heating is that their crystal transformation is fully reversible. In most crystal transformations, the atoms in the structure will travel through the metal by diffusion, changing the composition locally, even though the metal as a whole is made of the same atoms. A reversible transformation does not involve this diffusion of atoms, instead all the atoms shift at the same time to form a new structure, much in the way a parallelogram can be made out of a square by pushing on two opposing sides. Shape-memory alloys are typically made by casting, using vacuum arc melting or induction melting. These are specialist techniques used to keep impurities in the alloy to a minimum and ensure the metals are well mixed. The ingot is then hot rolled into longer sections and then drawn to turn it into wire.

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