Tasks for admission to the exam (4 economists course)

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Tasks for admission to the exam (4 economists course 8 semester)
I. Four sentences have been taken out of the text below. Head through the text and then choose the best sentence (AG) to fill each gap. To help you choose the correct sentence, look carefully at the text before and after each gap.
A. This means that they also have values.
B. Its primary function is, of course, to sell goods and services.
C. The purchase of the product becomes the key to entering this mythical world.
D. But they do offer a highly selective farm of truth-telling
E. Some agencies have come up with what is called lifestyle advertising.
F. These images and lifestyles arc created mainly by telling stories with a human interest
G. But they can also create dissatisfaction with the way things are.

Whatever its measurable effects, advertising clearly matters to advertisers, since huge sums are spent on advertising budgets and spending has trebled over the last decade.
(1) ........ But since advertising uses powerful images to promote its products, it's also incidentally promotes "lifestyles". Some advertisements, like those for public utilities and environmentally sensitive industries, are solely devoted to promoting public images of themselves. (2) ........
Advertising stories are not just series of events in time. They involve structures of cause and effect. (3) ..... Advertisements for items like cars or computers speak of status, style and success more than the actual features of the products. The kind of values \u200b\u200bportrayed and the way they are presented are important factors in creating the ideologies which envelope the product »
Advertisements do not lie At least, not in an obvious way. (4) ......
There are clear differences between the frontal "hard sell" approach which makes direct claims about products and urges audiences to behave in specific ways and the more "soil sell" which leaves audiences to do more imaginative work themselves. Stories usually demand this kind of imaginative work from audiences, so we need to focus our attention on how they work.

II. For each statement 1-8, put a tick in the "My view" column if you agree and a cross if you disagree.
My view Writer's view
1. Advertising often promotes a particular lifestyle.
2. Advertising usually distorts the truth.
3. Advertising is incompatible with an environmentally sensitive way of life.
4. Advertisements often project an imaginary world.
5. Advertising can not sell anything to anyone unless they really want to buy it
6. Advertisements can create dissatisfaction with life as it really is.
7. Advertisements often portray a product as a solution to your problem
8. Advertising often changes people's behaviour.

III. Read the rest of the text "Advertising and Persuasion" and put a tick / cross in the Writer's view column according to whether the writer seems to agree or disagree with statements 1-8. Leave the box blank if you think the writer expresses no opinion.
In many cases, advertisements offer their products as solution to problems. But they can also create dissatisfaction with the way things are. What if you can not afford what is on offer and what if it fails to fulfill its promise? By offering products to aspire to in a mythical future, advertising may create discontent with the here and now.
Advertisements often promote feelings of dissatisfaction or desire amongst audiences which the products claim to remove. This is most often done by creation of a mythical ("Martini") world which is offered as a superior form of existence. The purchase of the products becomes the key to entering this mythical world. So advertising has effects beyond stimulating the need to buy ....

Additional information

In the 1980s. images of thrusting, self-satisfied, high-consuming "yuppies" were rife in advertising. For the 1990s, agencies suggest the dominant images will be more socially and environmentally sensitive.
"Greed", they say will be superseded by "Green" But how can advertising be used for sociably desirable ends like promoting green issues? Is there a danger that concern for the environment is being translated into another "lifestyle" label? Some advertising agencies have predicted a number of new labels for the 1990s which are a strange concoction of "Greed" and "Green" They include people who are "careers" but not "sharers" and "money-grabbing ecologists".
The Volkswagen Passat advertisement (1989) is a good example of this paradoxical formulations. It reiterates Volkswagen's long-standing claim for the reliability of its cars, but in a novel way. At the center of its story is a young Shirley Temple look-alike who is rescued by her father from an inner-city nightmare. The urban jungle is polluted by danger, crime and exhaust fumes. He leads her away to his powerful car where the mother is waiting to whisk her away. It offers a fairy-tale solution of private security against public squalor. A form of escape is being recommended which only some people can afford and which works to the detriment of others. Ironically, the motor car (which is arguably a major factor in urban migration and inter-city decay) is seen as providing a kind of privileged escape. It presents a contradictory and very private kind of ecology.

IV. Answer the questions.
1. What do you feel are positive and negative aspects of advertising today?
2. Are there certain styles of advertisement which are unacceptable?
3. Are there any products for which you think advertising should be restricted, eg tobacco products ''?

V. Match the key terms (1-14) with their explanations (AN)
1. abound
2. facilitate
3. disparity
4. trigger
5. empowerment
6. foster
7. scale up
8. roll back
9. implementation
10. jeopardize
11. yardstick
12. illiteracy
13. sustain
14. eradicate

A increase, promote
In turn smth back or further away
With a process of putting smth into effect or action
D put in danger
E a standard used for evaluating qualities of people or things
F destroy completely, put an end to smth
G help the development, encourage or promote
H make smth easy or easier
I difference, inequality
1 start a sudden, often violent action or reaction
For disability to read or write
L giving smb power or authority to act
M exist in great numbers or quantifies
N keep smth stable, constant, unchanging

VI. Find in the text and give opposites for the following words:
1. failure
2. stagnation
3. health
4. cheap
5. accelerate
6. start, set up, create
7. project
8. discourage
9. deteriorate, make worse
10. increase
11. wealth
12. make smth difficult


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