Текст Pharmaceuticals и задания к нему

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Exercise IV: Read, analyse and translate the following text. + 5 вопросов по тексту
Pharmaceuticals
Pharmaceutical is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease and for restoring, correction or modifying organic functions. Records of medical plants and minerals date to ancient Chinese, Hindi and Mediterranean civilizations. Ancient Greek physicians used a variety of drugs in their profession. There was a period of long sleep during Middle Ages, but then pharmaceutical practice began to develop rapidly, and in 1546 the first pharmacopoeia (list of drugs and their preparation) appeared in Germany. The profession of pharmacy is considered to have begun in 1617. Among the earliest modern pharmaceuticals were the anesthetics; morphine, ether, ehloroform, cocaine appeared in the 19th century as well as other substances: strychnine (1817), quinine (1820), and nicotine (1828). Phenol (carbolic acid) was first used to prevent infection in 1865.
Pharmaceuticals are generally classified by chemical groups according to their work in the body (pharmacological effect), and therapeutic use. Alkaloids were the first pure pharmaceuticals derived from plants. They include quinine, morphine, nicotine and other substances. Drugs of animal origin include extracts containing hormones, such as insulin for use in treating diabetes.
Antibiotics, vaccines, human blood-plasma fractions, steroid hormones are also manufactured from natural substances. Vitamins are often made in the laboratories.
Medical substances may be added to water, alcohol or other solvents so that they can be used in a solution form. These may include sprits, elixirs and tinctures. Ointments, creams, pastes and jellies are semisolid preparations.

Task I. Complete the sentences adding a question tag and translate them:
1. Pharmaceutical is a substance, used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease, …?
2. Ancient Greek physicians used a variety of drugs in their profession, …?
3. The profession of pharmacy is considered to have begun in 1617, …?
4. There was a period of long depression during Middle Ages, …?
5. Vitamins are often made artificially in the laboratories, …?
6. Medical substances may be added to water, alcohol or other solvents, …?
7. The dosage of solid drugs is easier to determine, …?
8. Medical substances may be added to different solvents, …?
9. Many medicaments are manufactured from natural substances, …?
10. Solid forms are more efficient to produce, …?

Task III. Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Лекарство – вещество, используемое для диагностики, лечения или предупреждения болезни.
2. Фармацевтическая практика начала быстро развиваться в XVI веке.
3. Фенол впервые был использован для предупреждения инфекции в 1865 году.
4. Лекарства животного происхождения включают экстракты, содержащие витамины.
5. Витамины часто производятся в лабораториях.
6. Они могут использоваться в форме раствора.
7. Твёрдые препараты включают пилюли, таблетки, драже, свечи.
8. Лекарства классифицируются в соответствии с их фармакологическим эффектом.
9. Мази, кремы, пасты и гели являются полутвёрдыми препаратами.
10. Хранение и сортировка твёрдых лекарств не вызывает проблем.

XII. Напишите следующие предложения в утвердительной форме.
1. Must the students work during the whole term?
2. Could he enter the Institute last year?
3. Can he become good therapeutist?
4. May this remedy do you harm?

IX. Выберите нужные модальные глаголы из данных в скобках.
1. We are first-year students. We … perform operations. (cannot, may)
2. Medical students … know Anatomy well. (may, must)
3. I am waiting for my brother. He … come any minute. (may, can)

XXI. Supply questions to these answers.
1. Yes, we can dissect corpses.
2. Yes, they may fix the date of their consultation.
3. Yes, I must complete this work in time.

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