Texts for Medical Institute 3 (Translation)

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Text C. The Lungs
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. There are two lungs in the human body located in the lateral cavities of the chest. The lungs are separated from each other by the mediastinum. The lungs are covered with the pleura. They are conical in shape. Each lung has the base, apex, two borders and three surfaces.
The lung has the apex extending upward 3-4 centimetres (cm) above the level of the first rib.
The base of the lung is located in the convex (convex) surface of the diaphragm.
The posterior borders of the lungs are on each side of the spinal column. The anterior borders thin and overlap (overlap) the pericardium.
The weight of the lungs varies according to many conditions. In the adult male the weight of the lungs is about 1,350 gr. The right lung is about 15% heavier than the left one. The vital capacity of the lungs is 3.5-4 liters in the male and it is 3-3.5 liters in the female.
The right lung consisting of three lobes is heavier than the left one because the latter consists only of two lobes. The lower lobe of the left lung is larger than the upper one.
In infants the lungs are of a pale rose colour, but later they become darker.
The lung is coveres with an external serous coat, ie with visceral layer of the pleura. The parenchyma or proper substance of the lungs consists of the bronchial tree with elastic tissue and vessels.

Text D
The aorta is the main vessel of the systemic arteries or the arteries of the general system. It begins at the upper part of the left ventricle, goes up, arches over the root (root) of the left lung to the left side of the trunk at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra. On its way from the fifth thoracic vertebra to about the level of the last thoracic vertebra it is called the thoracic aorta. Then it goes down through the diaphragm. From the point of the last thoracic vertebra to the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra it is called the abdominal aorta.
It then goes to the border of the fourth lumbar vertebra .mil here it finishes dividing into the left and right iliac arteries.

Text E. The Alimentary Tract
The alimentary tract is a musculomembraneous canal about 8 ½ m (metres) in length. It extends from the oral cavity to the anus. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The liver with gallbladder and pancreas are the large glands of the alimentary tract.
The first division of the alimentary tract is formed by the mouth. Important structures of the mouth are the teeth and the tongue, which is the organ of taste (taste). The soft and hard palates and the salivary glands are also in the oral cavity.
From the mouth food passes through the pharynx to the esophagus and then to the stomach.
The stomach is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. It measures about 21 -25 cm in length, 8-9 cm in its greatest diameter. It has a capacity of from 2.14 to 4.28 1 (litres).
The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 metres long. It is located in the middle portion of the abdominal cavity. The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The large intestine is about 1.5 metres long. It is divided into caecum, colon, sigm anorectum.
The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The weight of the liver is 1,500 g.
The gallbladder is a hollow sac (bag) lying on the lower surface of the liver.
The pancreas is a long thin gland lying behind the stomach.

Additional information

Text F. Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1563) is one of the greatest anatomists. He studied medicine in France. In 1537 he got the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In 1538 his first scientific works in Anatomy were published. In 1543 his most important book "On the Structure of the Human Body" was written.
His work "On the Structure of the Human Body" consists of seven books. The bones of the skeleton, the joints and cartilsges were described in the first book; the muscles - in the second; the vessels - in the third; the nerves - in the fourth; the alimentary tract - in the fifth; the heart and the respiratory system - in the sixth; the brain - in the seventh.
In all his researches Vesalius studied the anatomy of the human body on corpses. He studied the structure of the inner organs of the human body taking into consideration1 their functions. Vesalius was the first scientist to give a propef description of the human skeleton. He also determined that the right and the left ventricles' of the heart were not connected. He determined that there were no opening in the septum between the left and the right heart chambers. It was a great discovery. Before Vesalius all the scientists considered that the left and the right heart chambers were connected by the opening in the septum. His discovery opened the way to the discovery of the pulmonary and systemic blood circulations in future. Vesalius did much to establish new and exact anatomical terms.
The great Russian scientist Pavlov said that the works written by Vesalius composed the first anatomy of the human body in which everything was based on scientific research work.
1. to take into consideration - to take into account

Text A. The Viscera
Although they are often called by a single name, the viscera, the organs that fill the body's chest and abdominal cavities compose several different systems - respiratory, digestive and urogenital, which togethe provide the body with food and oxygen and remove wastes (breakdown products) .
The trachea and langs are parts of the respiratory system, which delivers oxygen to the blood. The lungs consist of millions of elastic membranus sacs which together can hold about as much air as a football.
The organs of the digestive system most prominant ones are: the stomach, the large and small intestines and the liver. They modify foods which the body takes in. The soft, reddish-brown liver, the largest gland in the body, plays hundreds of roles, from producting proteins to secreting bile.
The bladder is part of the urinary system, which regulates the body's water supply. The kidneys, located behind the stomach and liver, filter out wastes and pass them along to the bladder for storage (accumulation) and discharge.


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