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Англ, вар 1 (Exporting Trade)

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I. Прочитайте и письменно переведите следующий текст на русский язык. Задайте 5 вопросов на английском языке по тексту.
Exporting Trade
When a company exports goods abroad there are many problems. It must consider, e.g. packaging, transportation, insurance and payment. First the goods must be packed carefully in containers to protect them from damage. The containers or crates must be labelled clearly to show where they are going.
Goods can be transported by sea or by air. If the goods are shipped, then transportation must be arranged from the factory to the docks (or quay). This can either be by road in trucks or by rail. The shipment must be insured against loss or damage.
Exporting brings foreign currency into the country, so governments encourage export trade by giving assistance and incentive to exporters. Often companies borrow money from exporting. This money is called export credit.
All products may be classified as being either consumer goods or industrial goods. Consumer goods are those goods purchased by individuals for their own personal use rather than for business use. Industrial goods are goods sold by one business firm to other business firms.
There are three basic categories of consumer goods:
1. Convenience goods are inexpensive goods that consumers wish to buy at the most convenient location and with a minimum of effort. Typical examples are cigarettes, candy, newspapers, etc. While consumers realize that some savings might be achieved by comparing prices at different stores, most feel that such savings would not justify the additional time and effort.
2. Shopping goods are some goods that people expect to shop for. Shopping goods carry relatively high price tags and are purchased less frequently. Examples would include automobiles, furniture and major appliances.
3. Specialty goods are goods consumers are willing to make a special effort to buy. However, they are available in only relatively few outlets in any given area. Health foods, hobby supplies, musical instruments, expensive furs and jewelry are typical examples.
Some goods are sold to industry, not to individual customers. If your product or service is designed for industrial use, you will be marketing it to lists of client’s industries such as food processors, steel mills, electronic plants or clothing factories.
In marketing industrial products and services you will be focusing on specifications, dimensions, blue prints, and technical details. Industrial customers want easy installations, on-site training of their workers, low cost, and reliability.

II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. How can we classify all products?
2. What goods are consumer goods?
3. How many basic categories of consumer goods do you know?
4. What goods are inexpensive goods ?
5. Can you give any typical examples of specialty goods?

III. Выполните следующие упражнения.

1. Определите функции герундия. Объясните свой выбор на русском языке. Предложения переведите.
1. I remember having given this instruction.
2. We have to insist on your replying promptly.
3. On receiving these funds we shall immediately taken actions.
4. We could not effect payment due to no signature being affixed there to.
5. Who is responsible for having prepared this document?

2. Переведите на английский язык.
1. Способ покрытия указан в инструкции.
2. Кто отвечал за подготовку этого финансового документа?
3. Счета необходимо проверить.
4. Мы не смогли осуществить платеж из-за отсутствия подписи.

3.Найдите герундий и переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите функции герундия. Объясните свой выбор на русском языке.
1. Flying from Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours.
2. I am proud of being a citizen of Russia.
3. I enjoyed travelling through Russia last summer.

Дополнительная информация

4.Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на причастные обороты. Определите функции причастия. Объясните свой выбор на русском языке.
1.The Volga flowing into the Caspian Sea is the biggest river in Europe.
2.Russia is a land of a great number of rivers, some of them being among the longest in the world.
3.Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia, making it the largest water route in Europe.
4.Being a light metal aluminium is widely used in electric engineering industry,
5.Metals are good conductors of electricity, copper and aluminium being the best.

Выберите правильный вариант. Объясните свой выбор на русском языке.

1. I hope they______this road by the time we come back next summer.
a) will have repaired c) will repair
b) would repair d) would have repaired
2. The essay is good______for the spelling mistakes.
a) apart c) unless
b) besides d) except
3. Jim suggested that I______a car.
a) should buy c) would buy
b) buying d) have bought
4. Will he arrive______time for dinner?
a) at c) to
b) with d) in
5. When oil and water mix, oil______to the top.
a) rise c) rises
b) rose d) is risen
6.______him all novelists are insignificant.
a) besides c) beside
b) near d) after
7. This blouse does not go______a pink skirt.
a) with c) up
b) to d) for
8. Are these lettuces home______or did you buy them in the market?
a) growing c) grow
b) grown d) grew
о. l don´t suppose I could leave now,______?
a) do I c) could I
b) can I d) couldn´t I
10. Persons swimming beyond this point do so______their own risk.
a) under c) on
b) in d) at
11. The cyclist was run _____ by a motorist.
a) off c) away
b) through d) down
12. After missing a term through illness he had to work very hard to______.
a) catch up c) catch on
b) catch after d) catch in
13. There has been a sharp rise______the cost of living in the past few years.
a) at c) on
b) of d) in
14.1 will not come to London until the bus strike_______over.
a) will be c) is
b) would be d) would have been
15. I don´t want anyone to overhear us, but I______you what happened when we______alone.
a) will tell, will be c) tell, will be
b) will tell, are d) would tell, are
16. If I had a typewriter I______it myself.
a) would type c) will have typed
b) would have typed d) will type
17. The old dog just______on the grass, watching the child dren at play.
a) is lying C) lied
b) laid d) lie
18. There has not been a great response to the sale,______?
a) does there c) hasn´t it
b) hasn´t there d) has there
19. If I______rich, I______travel around the world.
a) were, would c) am, would
b) have been, would have d) were, would have
20. That was the time______I left him.
a) when c) —
b) where d) after which


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